THE PACIFIC OCEAN

Oceans of the World, navigation and safety at sea and conservation of marine species

 

 

 

 

CNN JANUARY 25 - 4 BRITISH WOMEN ROW 8,000 MILES ACROSS THE PACIFIC OCEAN

They spent nine months on a boat, rowing two-hour shifts all day, seven days a week, without a toilet and with only an hour-and-a-half nap at a time.

Four British women completed their arduous journey across the Pacific Ocean on Monday after rowing about 8,500 miles from San Francisco to Cairns, Australia.

They had no support crew on the journey, and they only stopped twice (for one week at a time) in Hawaii and Samoa for supplies and repairs.

 

 

 

SHIFTS - Working in pairs, two on and two off, the ladies powered across the Pacific

 

 

With their arrival, Laura Penhaul, Natalia Cohen, Emma Mitchell and Meg Dyos - the final leg rower - become the first four-person crew to row this trans-Pacific route, and the first team to do it in three stages, according to Walking With the Wounded, one of two British charities they are supporting. The team hopes to raise £250,000 ($356,000) for Walking With the Wounded and Breast Cancer Care.

In one of their last blog posts, the members of the Coxless Crew team said they were focused only on the final 20 miles.

"It's fair to say that with physical exhaustion, sleep deprivation and a lack of (savory) food we are being tested to our limits," the team wrote Sunday. "However this is where we draw on our SPIRIT, row hard, row strong, row together."

"It's quite incredible what the body and the mind is capable of," Cohen told CNN's Lynda Kinkade by satellite phone a few days before the group landed in Cairns.

 

 

 

Doris moored in port at home

 

DORIS - Forget Shades of Grey, Shades of Pink is real life drama aboard a lively composite lifeboat only just big enough to carry food for part of the journey. This proved to be a risky strategy that caused friction on board. Rationing always sparks friction in any situation. But, in confined quarters one release of pent up concerns is to vent some steam on a fellow passenger. No harm done. It is healthy to be able to let go now and again and still remain friends. The real test comes when there is no food for months. Then a friend can begin to look like nourishment.

 

 

 

ONE SMALL STEP FOUR WOMEN - One giant leap into the record books. They did it, with huge thanks to all their supporters.

 

 

 

ACTION - The cameras roll as the ladies are officially welcomed to Australia.

 

 

 

FRIENDS - Back on terra firma the girls are just happy to have made it in time to catch some noodles at a local bistro.

 

 

The rowers have been videotaping their journey, and that footage will be part of a documentary "Losing Sight of Shore" by filmmaker Sarah Moshman.

The trip took three months longer than expected after delays during the second leg of the journey from Hawaii to Samoa, Moshman told Kinkade.

"They were very worried about if they would overshoot Samoa, (or) they would run out of food," she said. "There were a lot of concerns on that second leg. ... There's been no shortage of drama on this journey."

 

 

Dolphins in the Pacific Ocean

 

A Pacific spotted dolphin, under threat from toxin build up in plastic pollution in the Great North Pacific Garbage Patch. See our vision for a sustainable world future here.

 

 

Sometimes that drama involved minor irritations between the crew members, Cohen said. "The main one that comes to mind was between me and Laura, where we argued over a packet of instant noodles," she said.

Less than 400 rows have been successfully completed across the world's oceans, according to the Ocean Rowing Society International.

Shortly after the Coxless Crew set off for Australia, Sonya Baumstein attempted to row 6,000 miles from Japan to San Francisco by herself, also with no support. Baumstein had to end her journey about 150 miles into it.
By Tricia Escobedo

 

 

 

 

COXLESS CREW PACIFIC RECORD SPONSORS

 

 

 

 

PACIFIC FACTS

 

The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.


At 165.25 million square kilometres (63.8 million square miles) in area, this largest division of the World Ocean – and, in turn, the hydrosphere – covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,797 ft).


The eastern Pacific Ocean was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur. The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish expedition of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He therefore called it Mar Pacifico in Portuguese, meaning "peaceful sea".

 

 

 

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The islands in the Pacific are almost without exception of outstanding natural beauty

 

 

World's first shark sanctuary, Palau Island, North Pacific

 

PALAU ISLANDS - Is seen here as a peak in the ocean in the middle of this map. This was the world's first marine sanctuary for sharks from 2009, with President  "Tommy" Remengesau setting the example for others to follow.

 

 

SEAWATER CHARACTERISTICS

 

The volume of the Pacific Ocean, representing about 50.1 percent of the world's oceanic water, has been estimated at some 680 million cubic miles (2.8 billion cubic kilometres). Surface water temperatures in the Pacific can vary from −1.4 °C (29.5 °F), the freezing point of sea water, in the poleward areas to about 30 °C (86 °F) near the equator. Salinity also varies latitudinally reaching a maximum of 37 parts per thousand in the southeastern area. The water near the equator, which can have a salinity as low as 34 parts per thousand, is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. The lowest counts of less than 32 parts per thousand are found in the far north as less evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas. The motion of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (the North Pacific gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current.

Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some water moves northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turns southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current. The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea. Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California Current. The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current.

 

Chapter 20   -  EMPTY OCEAN  200 N, 1600 E

 (extract from: The $Billion Dollar Whale by Jameson Hunter © 2014)

 

Coverage of the ‘Lost Whale’ story was extraordinary, being featured on or near the front pages of almost every newspaper and popular magazine. By contrast the Solar Navigation Challenge, which only a few days earlier had been headline news, had been relegated to deep within the inside pages and was no longer a daily featured update for television.

“Steve!” Yelled Charley, as she burst into their hotel room. Steve was standing on the balcony, taking in the panoramic view.

“You realise we’ve already more than recovered our investment on the solar race?”

“Never mind that, take a look at these papers.”

Charley spread half a dozen top papers on the marble floor. Steve came inside to a carpet of news.

“Blow me down,” he puffed, “impressive stuff.”

There were full front page pictures of Humpback Whales broaching, and a couple of illustrations of ‘Moby Dick’ style artists impressions.

“Do you realise what the first pictures of Kulo will command?”

They spent a good hour looking over the copy to judge the reception of the story and to decide how best to aim the coverage to come. The anticipation made their blood and minds race. Then they checked on the internet editions. Nothing was showing. Good, thought Charley. Not quite the same as the smell of good old fashioned hot, hard copy anyway. But, the days of print were limited. They all knew it and had to move with the times, or drown. Steve decided to call Sky for feedback.

“Afternoon Tom, we’ve just read your latest networked editorials – bloody good, but the pressure is on us now to find this poor animal before anyone else.”

“That’s what I’m counting on,” said Tom. “Listen, this was your idea, not mine. I just agreed to help. You realise we’ve syndicated the story as a high priority rescue, to just about every press agency?”

“Yes, much appreciated, in fact I’m treading on a sample right now.

“Well, let us know of any clues, the moment you get them. Sorry old chum must dash; bye for now.” The line went dead. Tom was a very busy man. He wasn’t being rude.

Steve paced the room for a few seconds, and then put the phone to his ear again. The connection took a few minutes, so Charley knew who he was calling – ship to shore. Steve was about to ignite a spark. John Storm could find a needle in a haystack with a rusty magnet. They just needed to get his interest..

“Hi, John …… how’s the race going? ………”

John was way ahead of Starlight, and Starlight was way ahead of the pack, both boats enjoying cruising toward the Equator in ideal conditions.

Dan looked at John, “Who’s that?”

John mouthed “It’s Steve.” Then continued his conversation.

“Hey Steve, good to hear from you. Do you want a position report?”

“Oh yah, of course.”

“Were about two thousand nautical miles from Oahu and a few hundred in the lead. It looks like Starlight is also quite a bit ahead of the rest. Dan says hi.”

“Oh, hi back to Dan. John, I was wondering if you’ve spotted anything out of the ordinary in your travels?”

“No, should I be looking out for anything?”

Steve knew the news had not yet reached them. “No, but stay alert just in case. Catch you later.”

“Okay, later. Out.”

That worried John. He knew there was more to it than that. Damn, he hated it when that sort of thing happened. Stay alert to what? He checked the radar - nothing. He tuned to the international distress frequency – nothing.

“Steve says hi.” Dan could tell John was not entirely happy with that call, but said nothing. ……. It was kind of quiet. Dan was expecting contact from the media at more or less regular intervals.

“Dan, keep a listen out for any news, will you.”

“Is that what that call was about?”

“No, not really, but yes maybe. I’m not sure. I’ve a feeling something is up – a hunch.”

John’s hunches had a habit of being right, so Dan switched on the news channels and kept the radio scanning emergency channels.

 

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A humpback whale stikes a blow for anti whaling - The $Billion Dollar Whale movie

 

 

 

PACIFIC OCEAN GEOGRAPHY

 

The Pacific separates Asia and Australia from the Americas. It may be further subdivided by the equator into northern (North Pacific) and southern (South Pacific) portions. It extends from the Antarctic region in the South to the Arctic in the north. The Pacific Ocean encompasses approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 165.2 million square kilometres (63.8 million square miles) — significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass of some 150 million square kilometres (58 million square miles).

 

Extending approximately 15,500 kilometres (9,600 mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the northern extent of the circumpolar Southern Ocean at 60°S (older definitions extend it to Antarctica's Ross Sea), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 kilometres (12,300 mi) from Indonesia to the coast of Colombia – halfway across the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon. The lowest known point on Earth - the Mariana Trench - lies 10,911 metres (35,797 ft or 5,966 fathoms) below sea level. Its average depth is 4,028~4,188 metres (14,000 ft or 2,333 fathoms).

 

Due to the effects of plate tectonics, the Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking by roughly an inch per year (2–3 cm/yr) on three sides, roughly averaging 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) a year. By contrast, the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size.

 

Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea. The Strait of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian Oceans on the west, and Drake Passage and the Strait of Magellan link the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. To the north, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean.

 

As the Pacific straddles the 180th meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is in the Western Hemisphere.

 

For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful. However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many tropical storms batter the islands of the Pacific. The lands around the Pacific Rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes. Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and in some cases destroyed entire towns.

 

 

 

Around the Pacific Ocean is a region known as the Ring of Fire, where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur that may have been the origin of glow. The horseshoe shape is 25,000 miles (40,000 km) and, with 452 volcanoes, is home to more than 75 per cent of the planet's active and dormant volcanoes

 

 

LAND MASSES & ISLANDS

 

The islands entirely within the Pacific Ocean can be divided into three main groups known as Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the International Date Line, includes the Mariana Islands in the northwest, the Caroline Islands in the centre, the Marshall Islands to the west and the islands of Kiribati in the southwest.

Melanesia, to the southwest, includes New Guinea, the world's second largest island after Greenland and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia.

The largest area, Polynesia, stretching from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south, also encompasses Tuvalu, Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga and the Kermadec Islands to the west, the Cook Islands, Society Islands and Austral Islands in the center, and the Marquesas Islands, Tuamotu, Mangareva Islands and Easter Island to the east.

Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. Some of these islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.

The Coral reefs of the South Pacific are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of French Polynesia.

 

 

 

 

An old map of the Pacific Ocean compared to a modern version showing the islands

 

 

GEOLOGY

 

The ocean was mapped by Abraham Ortelius; he called it Maris Pacifici because of Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522 and said that it was much more calm than the Atlantic.

The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. A petrologic boundary, separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsic igneous rock on its margins. The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island.

The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand lie outside the andesite line.


Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin. Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. Outside the andesite line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism. The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones.

The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones. Only the Antarctic and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones.

 

 

 

Oil and plastic pollution totaling some 270,000 tons of waste in five major ocean gyres, is killing life in the oceans and poisoning our food chain. Dolphins, Seals and Turtles that have been trapped by plastic bags, nets and the like are common sights. These animals cannot clean the oceans up themselves. They need the help of the humans that caused the problem, turning their habitat into a convenient 'out of sight' rubbish dump.

 

Adapted Bluefish ZCC semi-autonomous drones could clean up the oceans for us in just a decade, if funding can be sourced to kickstart such a challenging project. Bluebird Marine Systems are not fund raising for the proposed clean-up project, rather leaving this to those better qualified. BMS are though able to develop prototypes in-house to be able to prove concepts, and arrange for subcontracting specialists to build ocean going cleaners that do not add to the carnage, because they are themselves zero emission, solar and wind powered high performance vehicles. We are prepared to work on research projects such as these on a not-for-profit basis in collaboration with other agencies and organizations.

 

 

Operation Seanet, world ocean gyre cleanup project

 

The North Pacific gyre is just one of several swirling trash zones (gyres) in our oceans, and it's where a lot of our plastic litter ends up. While these debris patches aren't visible piles of floating trash in the water, they are inverted mountains - a bit like landfill sites at sea - hidden from view. The reality of what they are and how they got there is mind boggling and extremely harmful to marine life. We can't (at the moment) do much about nuclear waste in the oceans (except appeal to reason), but we can act to vacuum up solids.

 

 

 

 

The Pacific North and South Oceans are the world's largest water mass, 165,200,000 km² with a mean depth of 4,280m

 

 

 

ACIDIFICATION - ADRIATIC - ARCTIC - ATLANTIC - BALTIC - BAY BENGAL - BERING - CARIBBEAN - CORAL - EAST CHINA SEA

ENGLISH CH - GOC - GUANABARA - GULF GUINEA - GULF MEXICO - INDIAN - IRC - MEDITERRANEAN - NORTH SEA - PACIFIC - PERSIAN GULF - SEA JAPAN

STH CHINA - PLASTIC - PLANKTON - PLASTIC OCEANS - SEA LEVEL RISE - UNCLOS - UNEP WOC - WWF

 

AMAZON - BURIGANGA - CITARUM - CONGO - CUYAHOGA - GANGES - IRTYSH - JORDAN  - LENA - MANTANZA-RIACHUELO

MARILAO - MEKONG - MISSISSIPPI - NIGER - NILE - PARANA - PASIG - SARNO - THAMES - YANGTZE - YAMUNA - YELLOW

 

 

 

LINKS & REFERENCE

 

Daily Mail Mystery-glow-Pacific-Ocean-Pilots-left-baffled-strange-orange-red-lights-spotted-dead-night

Britannica Pacific-Ocean

Wikipedia Pacific_Ocean

Reuters US-space-spacex-station splash down

Wikipedia Marine_pollution

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/437703/Pacific-Ocean

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/25/us-space-spacex-station-idUSKCN0IE0J620141025

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_pollution

hhttp://edition.cnn.com/2016/01/25/sport/british-rowers-pacific-ocean/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Ocean

http://www.enterprise-europe-scotland.com/sct/news/?newsid=4538

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Convention_for_the_Safety_of_Life_at_Sea

 

 

 

SEAVOLUTION - The key to healthy oceans is continuous monitoring and constant plastic patrols, for which the SeaVax ZCC (Zero Carbon Cruiser) platform, a concept under development, is a robotic ocean workhorse. The SeaVax concept is based on a stable trimaran hull this design is under development in the UK, looking to expand into the US. The robot ship uses no diesel fuel to monitor the oceans autonomously (COLREGS compliant) 24/7 and 365 days a year - only possible with the revolutionary (patent) energy harvesting system. The hullform is ideal for automatic release and recovery of ROVs or towed arrays, alternating between drone and fully autonomous modes. International development partners are welcome, We are not at this time bound by contract to any one country.  This vessel pays for itself in fuel saved every ten years. This ZCC would make an ideal fleet to clean up large areas of oceans, such as the plastic gyre garbage patches that the UN are concerned about.

 

 

 


 

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